Equatorial radius 695700 km ×109
Equatorial circumference 4.379×10 6 km ×109
Volume 1.41×10 18 km 3 ×1.3 million
Mass 1.98×10 30 kg ×333000
Temperature Center
1.57×10 7 K
Photosphere (effective) 5772 K
Corona ≈ 5×10 6 K
Luminosity (Lsol) 3.846×10 26 W
≈ 3.75×10 28 lm ≈ 98 lm/W efficacy
Mean radiance (Isol) 2.009×10 7 Wm −2 sr −1
Age ≈ 4.6 billion years
  • The Sun accounts for 99.86% of the mass in the solar system.
  • It has a mass of around 330,000 times that of Earth.
  • It is three quarters hydrogen and most of its remaining mass is helium.
  • Over one million Earth’s could fit inside the Sun.
  • The Sun produces energy by nuclear fusion in its' core, where under extreme heat and pressure four hydrogen nuclei are combined into one helium nucleus, releasing a lot of energy.
  • The Sun is almost a perfect sphere, with a diameter of about 1.392 million km, there is a difference of a mere 10 km between its polar and equatorial diameters. A more perfect stellar sphere
  • The Sun is travels at 220 km per second.
  • The Sun approximately 225-250 million years to complete one orbit of the centre of the Milky Way.
  • The Sun will eventually be about the size of Earth. Once the Sun has completed its red giant phase, it will collapse. It’s huge mass will be retained, but it will have a volume similar to that of Earth. When that happens, it will be known as a white dwarf.
  • It takes eight minutes for light reach Earth from the Sun, yet millions of years from its' core to its' surface!
  • The average distance from the Sun to the Earth is about 150 million km.
  • The Sun rotates in the opposite direction to Earth.
  • The Sun rotates more quickly at its equator than it does close to its poles - this is known as differential rotation.
  • The Sun has a powerful magnetic field. When magnetic energy is released by the Sun during magnetic storms, solar flares occur which we see on Earth as sunspots. Sunspots are dark areas on the Sun’s surface caused by magnetic variations. The reason they appear dark is due to their temperature being much lower than surrounding areas.
  • Temperatures inside the Sun can reach 15 million degrees Celsius.
  • The Sun generates solar winds which are ejections of plasma (extremely hot charged particles) that originate in the corona and can travel through the solar system at up to 450 km per second.
  • The atmosphere of the Sun is composed of three layers: the photosphere, the chromosphere, and the corona.